Saturday, June 1, 2019

Thamboolam


Thamboolam

Compiled by
P.R.Ramachander



(I have refrred to posts in face book and also in the web in Tamil.Thanks to all authors)

 Thamboola   is the combined name   which is normally   given to  Betel leaf and Betel nut ,It is believed  that the goddesses Parvathi , Lakshmi   and Saraswathi in live in betel leaf  , It was being chewed by males  and females  for getting  a great  super feeling.Women also  used to do it for making their  lip colour read

  It is a custom almost throughout India to offer  Thamboola to the  guests (athithi_)   , before  they depart to their home  Also  It was a practice of all  people  to chew  Betelnut  and betel leaf on which lime  is applied  after a heavy meals.  Scientists   did find  that betelnut has  carcinogenic properties   and slowly this custom   is disappearing.

Thamboola in South india

   Thamboola is given during many occasions in south

  1.When  unmarried and married   ladies(who are not widows ) come to our house  , it is a custom to  give , Thamboola, Kumkum   and  round  Turmeric roots to them. .

2.Since betel leaf is considered  as the personification of truth  , on the day  when   marriage engagement day(nischya THamboolam- ), Betel leaf and Betel nut are  exchanged.

   3,It is also a practice to offer Thamboola   to gods   during worship  .This is done after  food articles   are offered to God.

    4.Whenever  a  DAkshina(religious fee)   or Dhaana(gift) is given , it is always accompanied   by  Thamboola

       5.It is a practice   for ladies of the family   to invite  other married ladies  on festival days or on days when they   do a special pooja,  and offer them Thamboola.It is also considered as sign  of friendship

        6.When we go to another  home to invite them to a function in our house  normally thamboola is offered

         7, Thamboola   is given to  make mother Goddess  Happy .It is believed she will take Thamboola from you in some form.She  may  come   even  as servant maid, lady selling flowers  etc  and so  being Choosy in giving Thamboola   is bad   and may cause harm to you

A full and elaborate  thamboola  in south india  consists of

1.Betel leaf  , 2.Betel nut , 3 Turmeric   and kumkum  4.Comb 5.A small mirror, 6.Bangles, 7.Yellow thread   8.Coconut 9.Banana fruit 10.Flowers  11,Maruthani (mehandhi)   12. Kajal   , 13.Dakshinai   14,Ravikkai  cloth or Sari (some people add a small piece  of Jaggery with it)

a.Among themTurmeric  , Kumkum   and yellow thread  increases  the life span of your husband.
b.Comb   inceases  life span of husband
c.Mirror  protects  health of husband
d.Bangles would increase  your peace of mind
e.Coconut  to get your sins removed-Dehusked coconut  is preferred
f.Banana  gets you effect  of giving food as charity
g.Flower  increases   your happiness
h.Mehandhi    to prevent skin diseases
i.Kajal   for preventing evil eye  falling on you
j.Dakshina(fees)  to get blessing of Goddess Lakshmi
k,Blouse piece/sari   to get effect of Vasthra  Dhana-Once upon a time Blouse was useful to  all ladies but nowadays  with  ladies shifting   their dress  habits  , it has become less  useful.Instead of Blouse piece/Sari, you can give useful presents to them.

It is not necessary to give all the above things while giving thamboola   

   If some one invites you   for Thamboola  , it is believed   the  one invited should go .Even if they give only betel leaf and betel  nut, it should be received with happiness

Rules  of giving Thamboola

1.The one who gives THamboola   should face the east
2,The one who receives it  should sit on a   chair or mat facing them\
3.It is normal to give some thing to drink to them, at least water
4,If you are   giving coconut, slightly applu turmeric on it , put a kumkum mark , show it to Goddess  and give it to them
5.All materials of THamboola   should be kept on a  plate and offered
6.If the receiver is older than you, after  giving Thamboola, you should also do namaskaram to them
7.In Karnataka and Andhra , the thamboola materials are  kept on a muram(winnow)  and covered  with another Muram and offered
8.In some cases the Thamboola materials are offered by covering with our Sari and the receiver   also does that.

It is definite  that Goddess  would  bless the person who gives and receives  Thamboola.

Friday, May 31, 2019

Pani Grahanam(holding of hand) –an important ritual in Hindu marriage



Pani Grahanam(holding of hand)   –an important ritual  in Hindu marriage

By
P.R.Ramachander




Holding  the bride’s  hand   is a very important  vedic ritual  in all  Hindu marriages  With   each of us   giving   shake   hand   to hundreds of the other sex (pani  Grahanam)  it has lost  all its   ritual   significance

     In a hindu marriage  , first   the father  of the bride  , given her to  the proposed  groom   and requests him to get married to her, He then ties Mangalya(not a vedic ritual)     and then the  groom lowers his right palm and encloses it over the right hand of the bride. He covers all the five fingers of the right hand of the bride with his right palm through this act of paani grahanam. He recites mantras in praise of Bhaga, Aryama, Savita, Indra, Agni, Suryan, Vayu and Saraswati, while holding the bride's hand. He prays for long life, progeny, prosperity and harmony with the bride during their married life. The closed fingers of the right hand of the bride is said to represent her heart. The paani grahanam ritual symbolizes the bride surrendering her heart in the hands of the groom during the occasion of the marriage. It is also  a vedic ritual  , where  he promises  that  he would hold her hand   and lead  her  safely  in their  married life).This means  it is an extremely  important   step in their marriage.

 But   very strangely  in  Tamil Brahmin marriages he holds  bride’s  hand  much before  the  Vedic marriage  ceremonies  begin  , just after Oonjal(swing) as per instruction of the Brahmin priest  or even previous day  during Nischayathartham  .. The groom then takes her to the stage , does several  vedic ceremonies  concluded  by  Mangalya  Dharanam, followed  by   real Pani Grahanam (when they become  husband   and wife). We in Tamil Nadu   also used to call marriage  as Panigrahanam  once upon  a time    and even today  the Telugu  Brahmins call  their  marriage   as “Pani Grahanamu “ .

  Maha Periyava   has stressed about this several times  but in a society   every girl does “Panigrahanam” to each and every male   she is introduced,Talking about this is meaningless

   Just now   I read  from a Hindi site  that “Paani graham”   is acceptance of water  by the groom from the bride  and one of my friends told “never accept  Pani (water ) from a girl  other than your wife.”

   Hope that also is true.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Some good recommended habits


Some good  recommended  habits

Translated  by
P.R.Ramachander



(I have translated  and posted   several,such recommendations.This is another. But it is believed that you have tofoillow the habits recommended by the family  and not recommendations  by any one outside, however great he may be)

1,You should not bite your  nails with your teeth  as it is a dirty and unhealthy habit.
2,You should b not run  while it is raining(you may fall down)
3,While taking food  you should not press the ground by   your left hand
4.You should not take  bath without cloth
5.You should not blow fire with mouth
6.You should not cut your hair    on Tuesdays, Fridays , Chathurthi  , Chathurdasi  , sashti , Pournami, and b navami  but if these thithis occur on a Sunday or Thursday, you can cut your hair( Please do not ask me whether this is applicable to shaving)
7.You should not throw dirty things or live  insects  in fire
8,In temples you should not bathe at night.In Kasi you can
9.You should not see your shadow in water   and oil
10.You should not eat in darkness but only oiin well lit places
11.While eating , you should eat sweet first and then bitter in the end 
12,You should not eat with wet cloth or untied hair
13.You should not eat Nellikkai(gooseberry)  , Ginger  , curd and  fried things at night
14,You should not take bath  immediately after  bidding good bye to relatives
15.You should not cross the   rope  used to tie calf and cow
16.If ladies cry, riches will fly away
17.Ladies should not be with untied hair nor scratch their    hair with their two hands
18,A Brahmachari   should not carry corpse   of people other than his parents

Monday, May 20, 2019

The Dharma of Brahmins


The  Dharma  of Brahmins

Translated  by
P.R.Ramachander

Image result for Brahmana  Dharma

(the  original tamil text is in the blog  https://ramakrishnan6002.wordpress.com/2019/05/13/brahmana-dharmam/.My thanks to the author)

1.All Brahmins   have to understand   their Dharma   and follow it to the best of their ability.

2,A Brahmin should not   sleep at dawn and dusk

3.We should definitely do  SAndhya Vandhanam    which is a daily  ritual

4.Men should  do rituals wearing    a white  dhothi and white upper cloth.They should not wear  coloured   cloth at that time

5.Ladies should not chant Veda Manthras

6.When doing rituals , men should wear  Pancha Kacham  and Uthareeyam

7.Married Women when they light the lamp  should wear 9 yards Sari(madi saar)

8.The  cloth  , slippers  , meals plate  , bed  and garland   worn by a person    should not be used by others.

9.Except  at times when after death rituals dictate   wearing wet cloths, it should not be worn.

10.No lady should  keep the tip of her hair not tied   unless the priest tell.

11.Every individual    should keep a  separate water pot

12.All rituals should be done   on land never upstairs

13.There are  two types  of Karmas  -Nithya(daily)    and Naimithika( due to some reason)

14.If we do not do sandhya vandhanam , it is a sin

15.If a person does not do Sandhya Vandanam , all the other rituals he does , does not have any use.

16.Sradha should be performed bysons individually

17.While  performing any ritual , in the middle you should not talk

18.The Sradha  of Father  and mother  should be done as per rules

19.From childhood,  children should  be taught  rules of religion   as well as rituals of day today life

20, We should avoid living a life of Luxury

21.No ritual would give results without  our physical involvement

22,We have to follow   our Dharma   and protect it

23.From the temple   we should not bring Prasada   except things like  sacred ash, kumkum,  Thulasi   and Vilwa leaf

24.Grahasthas  should do Oupasana  atleast in two pakshas   of the year.They should do Sthaleepaka  on Prathama

25.Since we are descendents of sages, we  should follow  the smrithis found out by them
26.We  do not have power  to alter  Sruthi  or Sastra

27. Dharma sastras are there  separately for   men, women  , children  , sick people as  well those   who are not Brahmins,

28.Our religion prohibits   Divorce of men and women  under all circumstances

29.If a man realizes that   the wife he has married as per Dharma has a defect or disease , the person can marry again but look after her in his home.

30. After doing after death rites  of mother and father  or observing ten day  taint for our Dhayadhi(Paternal relations) , men should shave  on the tenth day.

31.The rituals  as per sasthras  can only be done  at the ground floors

32.Only after  she shaves  the head after  her husband dies, the death traint of her husband leaves her.When they are like this   they are prohibited from going to temple, chant manthras etc

33. Cremating  a  dead body of orphan  , worshipping Shiva linga  which has no body to worship it and helping the poor   and blind destroys all the sins you might have committed


34.Any house where  no sound of chanting of Vedas are heard  . where  no rituals are performed and which is not  visited by Vedic Scholars  is equal to cremation ground

35. If we wash the cloths after bath and dry it   and wearit next day, only Nithya  Karmas  can be performed

36.For other Karmas specially Sradha , we have to take bath , wash cloth  , dry it and wear the same day

37.A dried cloth which has  seen two suns., should not be used  for  doing Karmas

38.We should never find fault  with those   who have learnt Vedas

39.Gas stove should not be used  for rituals

40.WE should understand the ritual we are doing and perform it with full faith  and attention

41. The priests should learn Dharma  Sastras   well and then only help in conducting it

42.When a priest  gets done a ritual against Dharma Sastras , the sin would come to him via DAkshina which they take

43.A person only doing Nithya Karmas  is better  than those who learn   Vedas and Sastras but never  use it.



Monday, April 29, 2019

Hiranya Sradham


Hiranya Sradham

By
P.R.Ramachander



Parvana  Sradha is the Normal annual Sradha  with homa, Washi ng legs of Brahmanas,Feeding Brahmanas by cooked food , Offering Pindas ,and Dakshina

Aama Sradha which is done in a  similar manner  but by giving the Brahmins   uncooked food

Hiranya Sradha is done  by giving  money only.Hiranya means Gold 

In HIranya sradha  our Acharya(Priest)  comes with two people  . One of them would represent the Viswe deva   and the other Pithrus.(In case  two people are not available  , he himself takes  the part of one of them.The rituals consist of

We wear  Pancha Kacham and our   Wife the traditional madi saar

Changing of  Sacred thread   and Achamanam

1.Sankalpam –Which in detail tell us about the time and place  where we perform SRadha   and to whom the Sradha  is performed

2.Invoking  The Viswe devas-  With Manthra   and sprinking of Akshadha   we invoke  one Brahmin as Viswe deva. We offer him seat  by  putting A dharbha   as seat , offer him Sandal paste, Thulasi for decorating himself.
Then we invoke the Pithrus. Here the welcome is done by sprinkling black gingelly with sacred thread worn on right shoulder(Idam or Pracheena vidhi)

3.Give both of them Dakshina   as well as Rice and raw banana  for   their food for that day.

4.WE go around the Brahmins and salute them

5.Then both the Brahimns    as well as Acharya bless  us  by throwing akshadha at us. WE hold this Akshada  in our Uthareeyam. Request our elders among us to bless us and then blessing all those  who belong to our paternal family  and who are younger to us

6.We give Dakshina to the  Acharya .

7.We finish the Sradha  by doing Tharpanam to our father side Pithrus


Offering food to the Brahmins   in the form of breakfast or lunch is optional  .The entire procedure would take about half an hour. When The acharya  is not able to get Brahmins , He would take the place of them  and make A koorcha represent the other Brahmin

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Summary meaning in English of various manthras used in tharpanam



Summary meaning in English of various manthras used in tharpanam

By
P.R.Ramachander


(I for one believe    that when we do a ritual , we should understand , what we are doing.AS I told  you in the introduction of Tharpanam, It is an important ritual   addressed  to our forefathers .)
1.Aachamanam
       This is a preliminary purification ceremony. Gods Achutha, Anantha and Govinda are saluted and then the self is purified by chanting the twelve names of Vishnu.
2.Ganapathi dyanam (this is not done by Vaishnavites)
     This is a prayer to the God Ganapathi who is supposed to remove all obstacles on our way in performance of any rite, in this case, “Tharpanam”
            Dressed in white thou art,
           Oh, all pervading one,
           And glowing with the colour of moon.
           With four arms, thou art, Vishnu.
           I meditate on thine ever-smiling face,
           And pray, “ Remove all obstacles on my way”.
3.Pranayamam
     This manthra is a guide to a breathing exercise as also a prayer. While chanting Om bhoo,Om Bhuva, Ogum Suva, Om Maha, om jana, om thapa, ogum satyam we are supposed to keep the left nostril closed and inhale through the right nostril. While chanting, “Om tat sa vithur varenyam bargo devasya dhee mahi, dhi yo yona prachothayad”, we are supposed to close both nostrils and hold the breath. After this the left nostril is opened and air exhaled till the end of the manthra.
   Hindus believed that that there were six holy worlds above the earth. These along with earth are remembered in the first part. These worlds are bhooloka, bhuvarloka, suvarloka, maharloka, janaloka, thapaloka and satya loka. The second part is the famous Gayathri manthram. It means
“I meditate on that savitha (the sun or the enlightenment within ourselves) which helps us in our though process, that god which is within me and that all engulfing power.”
                                               Or
“ I meditate on the most holy shining aspect of that God, who helps in brightening our thought process.”
Then the third part means “ Om is water, it is the light, it is the earth which gives the food, it is the air which supports life, and it is the ether which is spread all around .It is also the holy seven worlds.”
     By touching the nose the hands are supposed to get polluted and this is removed by touching the ears thrice.
4.Sankalpam
    This is a preliminary rite in every Vedic action. We tell why we are doing what we do and we also tell, what we are going to do every time. In some cases like the tharpanam we also tell when we are doing it and where.
     To attain the grace of God, through destruction of sins committed by me, praying the lord of all worlds,
  1.I pray god Lakshmi pathi and mention below the auspicious hour, day, star, moon phase, my knowledge base and the strength of God and salute the feets of Lord Vishnu.
   2.Whether one is in pure or impure state or whatever state one is in, just by remembering Pundarikaksha that is Lord Vishnu, I get cleaned both outside and inside.
   3.There is no doubt that the sins committed either by mind, or words or by action go away by remembering the names of Lord Rama.Rama. Rama
  4.The moon phase, the day, the star, the yoga and the happenings are all Lord Vishnu and thus the whole world is filled with Lord Vishnu.Govinda, Govinda, Govinda.
  5.In the second ionic division of lord Brahma who acted according to the wishes of the prime God Lord Vishnu, In the great period of the white Varaha, in the extended reign of Vaivasvatha manu, in the 28th time period which is the first step of Kali yuga,
   At the Indian sub continent of the Indian continent of the great Jambu island, In the south of the Meru mountain, In the year           of the saka timeperiod starting with the year Prabhava, in the                  solstice, in the                       season, in the month of                   
                       In the waning/waxing period of the moon, in the day                     of the moon crescents, in the            day,  in the                  star, in the holy period  which is for good action, which results in good,  and in the period which has many other good properties,     in the day                       of moon crescents, I do oblations with thil(gingelly) and water for destruction of all my sins and for the favour of the god, to    my father  whose name is          who is of the form of vasu, who belongs to the gothra             , to my grand father  whose name is                  who is of the form of Rudra, who belongs to the gothra                         , to my great grand father  whose name is           who is of the form of adithya and who belongs to the gothra        , as also to my mother(grand mother  if she mother is alive) who is of the form of vasu and who belongs to the gothra               and whose name is           , to my grand mother (great grand mother if mother is alive) who is of the form of Rudra who belongs to the gothra           
             And whose name is              , to my great grand mother  (her mother if mother is alive) who is of the form of Adithya and who belongs to the Gothra                     and whose name is                , to my maternal grand father who is of the form of Vasu and who belongs to the gothra                  and whose name is                , to my maternal great grand father  who is of the form of Rudra, who belongs to the gothra               and whose name is                          , to my great grand father of my mother  who is of the form of Adithya              and whose name is                     , to my maternal grand mother who is of the form of vasu, who belongs to the gotra        and whose name is         , to my maternal great grand mother who is of the form of Rudra, who belongs to the gothra               and whose name is              , to my great grand mother of my mother  who is of the form of adithya  who belongs to the gothra               and whose  name is                   .for their perennial satisfaction ,                   


5.Avahanam(For  my fathers side)
1.Hey revered manes, who have observed soma yaga, please travel through the royal  path , and take part in this rite, which has been adopted by your ancestors. And bless me with children wealth and long life,
2.Om is the sound of the holy lands, which are above this earth.
3.I meditate on my father, grandfather, great grandfather whose names are                               
                                   who were belonged to the                         gothra and  whose respective forms are that of Vasu, rudhra and adhithya and my mother, grand mother and great grand mother [24] whose names are                                          who belonged to the           
             gothra and whose respective forms are that of Vasu, Rudhra and Adhithya and request them to occupy this koorcham.

6.Asanam (For my fathers side)
  1.Hey leaves of Durbha plant, I spread thine very soft leaves , which were only cut once here so that my manes can sit on you. Let my father, grandfather, great grandfather who are of the form of the moon sit on you along with their companions.
 2.I give seat to my father, grandfather, great grandfather and my mother, grandmother and great grandmother[25] and worship them with gingelly.

7.Avahanam(For  my maternal grand father’s  side)
1.Hey revered manes, who have observed soma yaga, please travel through the royal  path , and take part in this rite, which has been adopted by your ancestors. And bless me with children wealth and long life,
2.Om is the sound of the holy lands, which are above this earth.
3.I meditate on my maternal grandfather, maternal great grandfather,  grandfather of maternal grandfather whose names are                              
                                   who were belonged to the                         gothra and  whose respective forms are that of Vasu, rudhra and adhithya and my maternal grand mother, maternal great grand mother and  grand mother of  maternal grand father [26] whose names are                                          who belonged to the           
             gothra and whose respective forms are that of Vasu, Rudhra and Adhithya and request them to occupy this koorcham.

8.Asanam (For my maternal grand fathers side)
  1.Hey leaves of Durbha plant, I spread thine very soft leaves , which were only cut once here so that my manes can sit on you. Let my maternal grandfather, maternal great grandfather,  grand father of maternal grandfather who are of the form of the moon sit on you along with their companions.
 2.I give seat to my maternal grand father, maternal great grand father, grand father of my maternal grand father and my maternal grand mother, maternal great grand mother and  grand mother of my maternal grand father[27] and worship them with gingelly.

9.Oblations to paternal ancestors

a. Oblations to father
1.Let all those manes who are in the earth because they did not perform dutiful rites. Those manes who are great because they carried out fire sacrifices and those of average stature because they performed  the rites prescribed to them, receive my oblations and bless me. Let those who do not trouble  and know about the rites that I perform  save me. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of vasu.       

2.Our manes who are known  by names such as Angeeras, atharwas, and brugus ,are of very great character and they all have great affection to their descendents. Let them who should be worshipped by doing fire sacrifices be is our mind doing good and bless us. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of vasu.

3.Let my manes who have not done fire sacrifices but have reached pithru loka arrive here by the path taken by Gods. Let them get satisfied by this offering of food mixed with water  and let them talk good of us in the other world  and bless us with further and further progress. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of vasu.             

b. Oblations to grandfather

1.Hey gods who love  water  , carry suitable food, nectar, ghee, blood and toddy to my manes if by chance  they are born as men, tree, creeper and men of the lower caste and make it suitable food for them  and also become food for them. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my grand father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of Rudra.

2.I salute my father, grand father and great grand father who like the food called swadha which is mixed with water and offer them the food which is swadha. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my grand father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of  Rudra.

3.Hey God of fire who is all knowing, You know my manes who are present here, who are not present here, those who are known to me  because they departed not long ago, those are not known to me, . Please take this food with water, which I am offering to them and let all my manes become happy. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my grand  father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of  Rudra

c. Oblations to great grandfather

  1.Let air do me  (who is offering these oblations) good  and rivers and medicinal plants  give me sweetness  I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my great grand  father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of  Adhithya.

2.Let night and day do me good. Let earth give me sweetness and very good quality food. Let the sky , which is like my father not trouble me with no rain or excess rain  and grant me pure pleasure. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my great grand father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of  Adhithya.

3.Let trees bless me by giving fruits. Let Sun god give me energy without much hot weather. Let cows give me sweet milk. I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my great grand father whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of  adhitya.

d, e. f. Mother , grandmother , great grandmother[28]
    Three oblations  each are offered without any “riks(prayer chant) to the lady ancestors with the manthra
“I offer this oblation of this food mixed with water to my mother (grand mother, great grand mother) whose name is                        and who is born in the gothra               and who is the form of vasu.(Rudra for grand mother, Adithya for great grand mother.) “ 

10.Oblations to unknown manes of the father’s side.
   This is offered thrice with the chant.
“I offer this swadha food which is mixed with water to my known and unknown manes of my paternal side.”
Hey gods who love  water  , carry suitable food, nectar, ghee, blood and toddy to my manes if by chance  they are born as men, tree, creeper and men of the lower caste and make it suitable food for them  and also become food for them. Oh manes please get satisfied, please get satisfied and please get satisfied.

  The Tharpanam for the manes of the maternal grandfather side(11 and 12)  is  same as that of paternal side except the manes of the maternal grand fathers side are mentioned so as to avoid repetition this meaning is not given/

13.Pradakshinam

    Salutations to gods, manes and great sages.
    Salutations to food, fire sacrifice daily

The meaning of the alternate manthra:-
Oh manes salutations ,
To your spirit,
Your strength,
Your soul,
Your food, which is swadha,
Your anger,
And your strong punishment.
Let those people whom you are with ,
Obey you.
You kindly do as per our wishes.
Please be friends to those whom you are
With in Pithru loka and be a good home for them.
For those who are in this earth,
Let me a good home.

.
14.Namaskaram (Salutations)

Salutations to father-grand father and great grandfather,
Salutations to mother-grand mother-great grandmother
Salutations to maternal grandfather, his father and his grand father
Salutations to maternal grandmother, maternal great grandmother and great grandmother of maternal grandfather.

The meaning of alternate manthra.

Oh manes who are great in blessing and in action,
Be pleased to depart by either the old way
or through the land of yama or any other way,
Please grant us wealth and good luck.
Please tell the Vasu, adhithya and devathas,
About the food that I offered you.

15.Udwasanam

         This is the same as Avahana  manthra except that the manes are asked to go their place and are requested to come again and again.
16.Sarva Tharpanam.(general oblations)

  Let all those manes who do not have mother, father, friends , others of their family  or even others belonging to other gotras  to do tharpanam for them  partake this water mixed with gingely and be satisfied., be satisfied, be satisfied.

17.Brahmarpanam
    I do give all this to the great god Brahma so that faults are pardoned.

II Brahma Yagnam
     This is supposed to be done by all Brahmins daily after Madhyahnikam. This is a worship of Vedas and honouring and satifying the devas, rishis and Pithrus.The Manthra starting with “Vidhyudhasi….” Means
Oh God, you are the lightning which is in between the clouds and you know my sins.and I seek the part of that power of yours. Daily.
The vedic chants have the following meaning:-
1.I worship the god of fire  who is the first god in all fire sacrifices, who is the one who conducts and who is the conductior of the fire sacrifice and who is capable of giving all wealth.(Rik Veda)
2.Oh calves of cows, To supply us food as well as make us worship god, you graze and return. Let the god savithru give you good grazing(Yajur veda)
3.Oh God of fire, be pleased to come.You should be pleased accept our worship.Please make the fire sacrifice that we do to the devas.(sama veda)
4.Oh Gods who like water, Apart from quenching our thirsts, you should fulfill all our desires and grant us good things.By your grace let sorrow vanish from our lives  and let happiness come.(atharvana Veda)
Meaning for the sloka starting with “Vrushtirasi….”
You are rain,You will cut off my sins,.
   After this several oblation is offered to devas, rishis, Vedas and pithrus.